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Cardio pulmonary bypass: Technique that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery, maintaining the circulation of blood

Valvuloplasty: plastic repair of valves of heart

Valvotomy (commisurotomy): incision of valves given for procedures of valves of heart

Coronary endartectomy: Excision of occluding material, including intima and most of the media,(layers of arteries) from the coronary artery.

Infaction: the process of tissue death (necrosis) caused by blockage of the tissue's blood supply.

Truncus arteriosus: rare type of congenital heart disease characterized by a single blood vessel arising from the right and left ventricles, instead of the normal two (pulmonary artery and aorta).

Aortopexy: surgical procedure in which the aortic arch is fixated to the sternum done for tracheal compression

Aberrant vessel: vessel which is deviated from the normal course

Patent ductus arteriosus: congenital heart defect wherein a neonate's ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth which may lead to heart failure if left uncorrected

Aortic aneurysm: a general term for any swelling (dilatation or aneurysm) of the aorta, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location

Angioplasty: technique of mechanically widening a narrowed or obstructed blood vessel

Atherosclerosis: the condition in which an artery wall thickens as the result of a build-up of fatty materials such as cholesterol

Stenosis: an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure. Atresia: a condition in which a body orifice or passage in the body is abnormally closed or absent.

Arborization: he treelike terminal branching of nerve fibers or blood vessels Cardectomy: excision of the cardiac part of the stomach.

Extracorporeal circulation: procedure in which blood is taken from a patient's circulation to have a process applied to it before it is returned to the circulation.

Endovascular: inside the vessel

Pseudoaneurysm: known as a false aneurysm, is an hematoma that forms as the result of a leaking hole in an artery.

Arteriovenous fistula: abnormal connection between artery and vein

Angioscopy: examination of lumen of blood vessel by using fibre optic angioscope Trans luminal atherectomy: Endovascular procedure in which atheromatous plaque is excised by a cutting or rotating catheter.

Venography: (also called phlebography) is a procedure in which an x-ray of the veins, a venogram, is taken after a special dye is injected into the bone marrow or veins

Therapeutic apheresis: The process of apheresis involves removal of whole blood from a patient or donor for the treatement purpose

Photopheresis: blood is treated with photo activable drugs which are then activated with ultraviolet light.

Hemodialysis: a method for removing waste products such as potassium and urea, as well as free water from the blood when the kidneys are in renal failure.

Portasystemic shunts: also known as a liver shunt, is a bypass of the liver by the body's circulatory system. It can be either a congenital (present at birth) or acquired condition

Leiomyomata: a benign smooth muscle neoplasm

Phlebectomy: surgical removal or all or part of a vein; sometimes done in cases of severe varicose veins

Splenoportography: X-ray visualization of the portal circulation that uses radiopaque material introduced into the spleen.

Lymphadenitis: inflammation of lymph nodes

Lymphangiotomy: incision of lymphatic vessel

Retroperitoneum: the space present behind the peritoneum

Cystic hygroma: congenital multiloculated lymphatic lesion that can arise anywhere, but is classically found in the left posterior triangle of the neck

Diaphramatic hernia: defect or hole in the diaphragm that allows the abdominal contents to move into the chest cavity. Treatment is usually surgical.


Pericardium: covering of the heart

Pericardiocentesis: aspiration of the fluid from the pericardium for the examination

Pericardiotomy: surgical incision given for the removal of clot or foreign body

Transmyocardial: through the muscle of the heart

Revascularization: surgical procedure of providing increased blood supply to the part or organ

Defibrillator: device for delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the affected heart

Pacemaker: the part of the heart which produces rhythmical impulses to stimulate heart to produce heart beat

Sternotomy: surgical incision for the sternum for various procedures of the heart and lungs

Sub xiphiod: below the xiphiod( last part of sternum

Dysrhythmia: abnormality in the rhythm of the heart or brain


Volvulus: Abnormal twisting of the intestine which can impair the blood flow to the intestine and also leads to gangrene and death of that segment of the gastrointestinal tract

Intussusception: is a condition in which a part of the small intestine invaginates into another section of intestine which results in obstruction. The part that prolapses into the other is called the intussusceptum, and the part that receives it is called the intussuscipiens.

Hernia: is a protrusion of a tissue, structure, or part of an organ through the muscle tissue or the membrane in which it is normally present

Strangulated hernia: pressure on the hernial contents may compromise blood supply and cause ischemia, and later necrosis and gangrene, which may become fatal

Enteroenterostomy: A surgical connection between two segments of intestine.

Coloproctostomy: anastomosis of the colon to the rectum

Proctectomy: Surgical resection or excision of the rectum, also called rectectomy

Ileoproctostomy: Surgical construction of an opening between the ileum and the rectum. Ileostomy: Surgical construction of an artificial excretory opening through the abdominal wall into the ileum

Mucosectomy: Excision of the mucosa, usually of the rectum prior to ileoanal anastomosis

Ileocolostomy: Surgical construction of an opening between the ileum and the colon

Angioplasty: Technique of mechanically widening a narrowed or obstructed blood vessel

Atherosclerosis: he condition in which an artery wall thickens as the result of a build-up of fatty materials such as cholesterol

Jejunostomy: surgical creation of a opening between the jejunum and the surface of the abdominal wall.

Cecostomy: The surgical construction of an opening into the cecum

Ileoscopy: a flexible instrument to examine the ileum which is the lowest part of the small intestine.

Colonoscopy: The endoscopic examination of the large colon and the distal part of the small bowel through a flexible tube passed through the anus.

Stricturoplasty: is a surgical procedure performed in response to scar tissue that has built up in the intestinal wall

Fistula: An abnormal passage between two internal organs or from an internal organ to the body surface. Example-enterovesicle fistula means one connecting the urinary bladder with some part of the intestines.

Lavage: is washing out the stomach, for example, to remove drugs or poisons.

Abscess: is a collection of pus (dead neutrophils) that has accumulated in a cavity formed by the tissue as a result of an infectious process

Meckel'sdiverticulum: is a small bulge in the small intestine present at birth.

Diverticulectomy: surgical removal of a diverticulum

Appendectomy: is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix

Rectal prolapse: is protrusion of rectal tissue through the anus to the exterior of the body (rectum is the final section of the large intestine)

Perforation: is a complete penetration of the wall of the stomach, small intestine or large bowel, resulting in intestinal contents flowing into the abdominal cavity

Peptic ulcer: is defined as mucosal erosion of an area of the gastrointestinal tract that is extremely painful

Stricture: means stenosis or narrrowing

Polyps: is an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane

Proctoprexy: surgical repair of rectal prolapse

Proctoplasty: a plastic surgery procedure performed on the anus and rectum

Rectocele: results from a tear in the rectovaginal septum (which is normally a tough fibrous sheet like divider between the rectum and vagina)

Fistulotomy: is the surgical opening or removal of a fistulous tract

Seton: is a medical term for a procedure used to aid the healing of fistulae

Anal fissure: is a natural crack or tear in the skin of the anal canal and may be noticed by bright red anal bleeding in the toilet

Anal sphincterotomy: is a surgical procedure that involves treating mucosal fissures from the anal canal/sphincter

Crepectomy: excision or obliteration of a crypts (glands found in the epithelial lining of the small intestine and colon.)

Papillectomy: Surgical removal of any papilla.

Hemorrhoids: are enlarged or dilated veins located in and around the rectum and anus

Hemorrhoidectomy: Surgical removal of hemorrhoids

Fissurectomy: surgical removal of anal fissures

Anoplasty: plastic or reparative surgery of the anus

Cloaca: is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, reproductive and urinary tracts of certain animal species

Imperforate anus: is congenital (present from birth) defect in which the opening to the anus is missing or blocked

Electrodesiccation: Use of an electric current to destroy cancerous tissue and control bleeding

Cryosurgery (cryotherapy): is the application of extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue

Laser surgery: is surgery using a laser to cut tissue instead of a scalpel.

Hepatotomy: incision of the liver

Hepatectomy: a surgical procedure performed to remove a portion of the liver

Marsupialization: Surgical alteration of a cyst or similar enclosed cavity by making an incision and suturing the flaps to the adjacent tissue, creating a pouch.

Hepaticotomy: incision of the hepatic duct

Choledochotomy: creation of an opening into the common bile duct for drainage

Cholecystotomy: An operation during which the gallbladder is opened, gallstones are removed, and excess bile is drained.

Cholangiography: A radiographic examination of the bile ducts following administration of a radiopaque contrast medium

Cholecystectomy: is the surgical removal of the gallbladder

Cholecystoenterostomy: surgical anastomosis of the gallbladder and intestinal tract, usually indicated if the common bile duct has been disrupted by injury

Choledochoenterostomy: The surgical formation of a communication between the common bile duct and any part of the intestine

Portoenterostomy: surgical anastomosis of the jejunum to a decapsulated area of liver and to the duodenum, to establish a conduit(passage) from the intrahepatic bile ducts to the intestine in biliary atresia.(absence of normal opening)

Hepaticoenterostomy: The surgical formation of a communication between a hepatic duct and the intestine

Pancreatectomy: is the surgical removal of the pancreas

Pancreatojejunostomy: The surgical formation of an artificial opening between the jejunum and a pancreatic duct.

Pancreaticojejunostomy: anastomosis of the pancreatic duct to the jejunum.

Pancreatography: Radiographic visualization of the pancreatic ducts after injection of radiopaque material

Peritoneocentesis: paracentesis(needle drainage of fluid) of the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity.

Lymphoma: is a cancer that begins in the lymphocytes of the immune system and presents as a solid tumor of lymphoid cells.

Omentectomy: Surgery to remove part or all of the omentum, a fold of the peritoneum (linning of abdominal cavity) that surrounds the stomach and other organs in the abdomen.

Omentum: A fold of peritoneum extending from the stomach to adjacent abdominal organs.

Omentopexy: Suture of the omentum to another organ to increase arterial circulation

Omphalocele: A congenital hernia in which a small portion of the fetal abdominal contents, covered by a membrane sac, protrudes into the base of the umbilical cord.

Hernioplasty: surgical repair of hernia, with reconstruction of tissue

Herniotomy: A surgical procedure to reduce a hernia

Flap: A mass of tissue for grafting, usually including skin, only partially removed from one part of the body so that it retains its own blood supply during transfer to another site

Celiotomy: Incision into the abdominal cavity.

Plasty: suffix referring to any kind of repair

ectomy: suffix referring to the removal or excision of something

Vermilionectomy: Excision of the vermilion border (The line between the lip and the skin) of the lip

Cheiloplasty: procedure to remove excess lip tissue

Cleft lip: presence of one or two vertical fissures (gap)in the upper lip

Rhinoplasty: repair of nose

Vestibule: It is the part between the cheek and the teeth.

Labial Frenum: joining ridge beneath the lip.[labia: lip]

Frenotomy: cutting of a frenum

Labial: lip

Buccal: mouth

Intra oral: inside the mouth.

Glossectomy: removal of all or part of tongue

Gingival: gums Gingivectomy is the removal of excess gum

Periodontal: Surrounding or encasing a tooth

Palatopharyngoplasty: Surgical resection of unnecessary palatal and oropharyngeal tissue to open the airway

Uvula: small fleshy conical body hanging downward from the middle of the soft palate

Palate: roof of the mouth [ in front it is hard and so called as hard palate and behind it is soft so called as soft palate]

Palatoplasty: Repair of palate

Nasolabial: Relating to the nose and the upper lip.

Fistula: a hole (abnormal connection) between internal organ & outsideworld or between two organs/structures

Sialolithotomy: Removal of calculus(stones) from a salivary gland or duct

Sialography: radiographic examination of the salivary glands by injecting small amount of contrast medium sialodochoplasty repair of a salivary gland


Ventriculography: examination of ventri cles of brain to detect any abnormality

Pneumoencaphalography: is a medical procedure in which cerebrospinal fluid is drained to a small amount from around the brain and replaced with air, oxygen, or helium for a more clear picture when x-ray is performed

Fontanelle: these are anotomical soft parts on the babys skull which enables the skull to flex during its passsage through the birth canal . They are two in number ,anterior and posterior ,usally closed by two years of age

Burr hole: medical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, thus exposing the dura mater in order to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases

Craniectomy: the surgical removal of a portion of the cranium or skull

Craniotomy: surgical procedure performed by removal of part of skull inorder to perform the procedures to brain

Duraplasty: plastic repair of dura matter(outer covering of the brain)

Epileptogenic: convulsions or fits producing stimulus or agent

Electrocorticography: practice of using electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity from the cerebral cortex.

Lobectomy: surgical removal of lobes of brain

Hemispherectomy: surgical incision to the hemisphere of the brain . Brain has two hemispheres ,right ,left

Craniopharyngioma: a type of tumor derived from pituitary gland tissue that occurs in children and men and women in their 50s and 60s.

Amydalohippocampectomy: the removal of the hippocampus, which has a role in memory, spatial awareness, and the amygdalae, which have a role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions

Hypophysectomy: the surgical removal of the hypophysis, also called pituitary gland. It is most commonly performed to treat tumors

Craniosynostosis: medical condition in which some or all of the sutures in the skull of an infant or child close too early, causing problems with normal brain and skull growth.

Cranioplasty: plastic repair of skull or cranium

Orbital exenteration: the removal of the entire eyeball, orbital soft tissues, and some or all of the eyelids. It is usally performed when the cancer of orbital contents are not cured by simple irradiation or removal

Laminectomy: removal of laminae of brain

Tractotomy: incision of the nerve tract in the brain stem or spinal cord , usually for the relief from pain

Pedunculotomy: Total or partial surgical section of the cerebral peduncle.

Cingulotomy: a procedure in brain surgery to alleviate intractable pain by producing lesions in the tissue of the cingulate gyrus of the frontal lobe.

Vasospasm: condition in which blood vessels spasm, leading to vasoconstriction. This can lead to tissue ischemia and death (necrosis).

Thromboendarterectomy: removal of thrombus(blood clot) from the occluded arteries

Steriotaxis: A surgical technique that uses medical imaging to precisely locate in three dimensions an anatomical site to which a surgical instrument or a beam of radiation is directed

Encephalocele: sac-like protrusions of the brain and the membranes that cover it through openings in the skull.

Ventriculocisternostomy: surgical incision to the ventricles and cisterna of the brain

Adhesiolysis: destruction of adhesions formed in the brain

Discography: examination of discs of verterbrae

Chemonucleolysis: medical procedure that involves the dissolving of the gelatinous cushioning material( nucleus pulposes) in an intervertebral disk. Performed for the herniated intervertebral discs

Facetectomy: surgical procedure which involves decompression of a spinal nerve root.

Spodylolisthesis: anterior displacement of a vertebra or the vertebral column in relation to the vertebrae below.

Vertebral corpectomy: surgical procedure that involves removing part of the vertebral body

Rhizotomy: neurosurgical procedure that selectively incises problematic nerve roots in the spinal cord,

Dysphonia: disorders of the voice: an impairment in the ability to produce voice sounds using the vocal organs Torticollis(wry neck) condition in which the head is tilted toward one side and the chin is elevated and turned toward the opposite side

Chemodenervation: chemically interupting the neuro signalling or destruction of nerve tissue ,useful for the tratement of rigidity of muscles

Sympathectomy: surgical removal of sympathetic nerves

Conduit: general term for a means of conveying something from one location to another or between persons

Evisceration: surgical removal of internal organs

Enucleation: the surgical removal of a mass without cutting into or dissecting it

Keratoplasty: to separate a thin layer of the cornea and create a flap.

Aphakia: the absence of the lens of the eye, due to surgical removal, a perforating wound or ulcer, or congenital anomaly.

Pseudophakia: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness.

Keratomileusis: the surgical improvement of the refractive state of the cornea

Paracentesis: a medical procedure involving needle drainage of fluid from a body cavity

Goniotomy: surgical procedure primarily used to treat congenital glaucoma,

Trabeculotomy: Surgical opening of the canal of Schlemm to treat glaucoma.

Iridectomy: surgical removal of iris(part of eye)

Iridencleisis: Confinement of a portion of the iris in a wound of the cornea as a surgical measure in treating glaucoma

Staphyloma: abnormal protrusion of the uveal tissue through a weak point in the the eyeball. It occurs due to weakening of outer layer of eye

Cyclectomy: Excision of a portion of the ciliary body(part of eye). Also called ciliectomy.

Diathermy: the use of high frequency current to produce heat to cut of destroy tissue or to produce coagulation

Canthotomy: incision of canthusof eye

Capsulotomy: an incision that opens the clear, cellophane-like capsule that wraps the natural crystalline lens of the eye ,is sometimes necessary following cataract surgery.

Phacoemulsification: modern cataract surgery in which the eye's internal lens is emulsified with an ultrasonic handpiece, and aspirated from the eye

Vitrectomy: removal of vitreous of the eye

Glanciclovir: antiviral medication used to treat or prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections

Retinopexy: fixation of the retina

Ipsilateral: same side of the body

Strabismus: is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other

Blephatrotomy: surgical incision of an eyelid

Tarsorraphy: surgical procedure in which the eyelids are partially sewn together to narrow the opening

Symblepheron: surgical procedure in which the eyelids are partially sewn together to narrow the opening

Chalazion: a cyst in the eyelid that is caused by inflammation of a blocked meibomian gland, usually on the upper eyelid.

Trichiasis: abnormally positioned eyelashes that grow back toward the eye, touching the cornea or conjunctiva. Epilation(Hair removal )describes any method of removing hair, especially from the human body

Ptosis: drooping of eyelids

Blephroptosis: Drooping of the upper eyelid.

Blepharochalasis: an inflammation of the eyelid which results in a stretching and subsequent atrophy of the eyelid tissue.

Entropion: the eyelids fold inward. It is very uncomfortable, as the eyelashes rub against the cornea constantly

Ectropion: the lower eyelid turns outwards

Dacrocystostomy: incision of the lacrimal sac and duct.

Dacryolith: A concretion in a lacrimal sac or duct.

Dacrocystorhinostomy: surgical procedure which involves fistulization of the lacrimal sac into the nasal cavity

Conjunctivorhinostomy: A surgical procedure to construct a passageway through the conjunctiva into the nasal cavity.

Craniotomy: Surgical incision into the skull.

Craniosynostosis: premature fusion of the sutures of the skull

Plaigocephaly: flattening of one side of the skull

Trigonocephaly: the forehead will have a triangular shape

Brachycephaly: head is disproportionately wide and flat.

Hypertelorism: abnormally increased distance between two organs or parts

Canthopexy: tightens the lower eyelids and it raises the external corners of the eyes.

CORPECTOMY: removing part of the vertebral body

Laminectomy: spine operation to remove the portion of the vertebral bone called the lamina.

Myelography : x-ray examination of the structures within spinal cord by injecting a radio-opaque dye

DEQUERVAINS DISEASE: irritation or swelling of the tendons found along the thumb side of the wrist

ARTHROPLASTY: operative procedure for construction of a new movable joint

FASCIOTOMY: surgical procedure that cuts away the fascia to relieve tension or pressure

FASCIECTOMY: The surgical removal of part of the fascia


Oppenensplasty: repair of opponens muscle(muscle of thumb)

Pollicization: plastic surgery technique in which a thumb is created from an existing finger.

Polydactyly: occurrence of extra fingers or toes

Syndactaly: webbing or fusion of two or more fingers or toes.

Macrodactyly: foot grows larger than normal

Amputation: Removal of part or all of a body part covered by skin

Extracorporeal: situated or occurring outside the body

Sprain: injury to ligaments that is caused by stretching beyond their normal capacity

Cast: A shell, frequently made from plaster ,support and protect injured bones and soft tissue, reducing pain, swelling, and muscle spasm

Splint: A device used for holding a part of the body stable and motionless to decrease pain and prevent further injury

Unna boot: special gauze bandage

Gauntlet: a glove with an extended cuff for the wrist

hip spica: cast used to treat hip and thigh problems

Lysis: Destruction Or death.

Arthroscopy: Examination of the interior of a joint, such as the knee, using a type of endoscope that is inserted into the joint through a small opening

Abrasion: rubbing away of the upper layer of skin as a result of friction

Hallux rigidus: stiff great toe

Hallus valgus: great toe starts to deviate inward in the direction of the other small toes

Exostectomy: process of removing bony bumps(extra bony growth)on the bones


Perirenal abscess: is an infection surrounding one or both kidneys

Nephrostomy: is an artificial opening created between the kidney and the skin which allows the drainage of urine directly from the upper part of the urinary system (renal pelvis).

Nephrotomy: Surgical incision into the kidney

Nephrolithotomy: Incision into the kidney for the removal of a calculus

Pyelotomy: incision of the renal pelvis(area at the center of the kidney where urine collects and passed into the ureter)

Pyelostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the pelvis of the kidney to allow drainage of urine

Nephrectomy: is the surgical procedure of removing a kidney or section of a kidney

Ureterectomy: excision of a ureter.

Lymphadenectomy: Excision of one or more lymph nodes

Thrombectomy: surgical removal of a clot from a blood vessel

Ureterostomy: the surgical creation of a new opening through which a ureter empties onto the surface of the body or into another outlet

Pyelography: radiography of the renal pelvis and ureter after injection of contrast material.

Catheter: a tubular, flexible surgical instrument that is inserted into a cavity of the body to withdraw or introduce fluid

Ureteral catheter: a tube inserted through the urethra into the urinary bladder to drain urine

Pyeloplasty: Plastic or reconstructive surgery of the pelvis of the kidney to correct an obstruction

Nephropexy: Surgical fixation of a floating or mobile kidney.

Calycoplasty: Plastic surgery of a calyx(cavity in kidney) to increase its lumen

Nephrorrhapy: suture of the kidney.

Symphysiotomy: surgical division of a symphysis

Endopyelotomy: an incision procedure to correct a stenosed ureteropelvic junction by cutting from within, with an instrument inserted through an endoscope.

Lithotripsy: is the use of high-energy shock waves to fragment and disintegrate kidney stones

Ureterolithotomy: incision of a ureter for removal of calculus

Ureterography: radiography of the ureter after injection of a contrast medium

Ureteroplasty: plastic repair of a ureter

Ureterolysis: the operation of freeing the ureter from adhesions(fibrous bands of scar tissue between internal organs and tissues, joining them together abnormally.)

Ureteropyelostomy: surgical creation of a new communication between a ureter and the renal pelvis

Ureterocalycostomy: is a procedure used to anastomose nondilated healthy ureter proximal to the lower calyceal system, which is exposed.

Ureteroureterostomy: The establishment of an anastomosis between the two ureters or between two segments of the same ureter.

Ureteroneocystostomy: surgical transplantation of a ureter to a different site in the bladder.

Ureteroenterostomy: anastomosis of one or both ureters to the wall of the intestine.

Ureterosigmoidostomy: anastomosis of a ureter to the sigmoid colon.

Ureteroileal conduit: ureters are connected to a segment of intestine to divert urine flow through an opening in the skin

Cystolithotomy: incision of the bladder for removal of a calculus.

Cystectomy: surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder

Cystotomy: the surgical operation of making an incision into the urinary bladder

Hysterectomy: is the surgical removal of the uterus

Cystography: Radiographic visualization of the bladder following injection of a radiopaque substance

Urethrocystography: radiographic examination of urethra and bladder

Cystometrogram: is a procedure which allows us to assess how the bladder and sphincter works while urine is stored and expelled

Uroflowmetry: is a test that measures the volume of urine released (excreted) from the body, the speed with which it is excreted, and how long the excretion takes

Electromyography: involves testing the electrical activity of muscles

Cystoplasty: Surgical repair of a defect in the urinary bladder

Cystourethroplasty: surgical repair of the urinary bladder and urethra

Vesicourethropexy: is a term used to describe a wide variety of surgical procedures performed to relieve stress urinary incontinence (SUI). These procedures ultimately result in repositioning of the urethra and bladder neck.

Urethropexy: is a surgical procedure where support is provided to the urethra

Cystorrhaphy: Suturing of a wound or defect in the urinary bladder

Exstrophy: A congenital turning out or eversion of a hollow organ.

Enterocystoplasty: the most common type of augmentation( resulting condition) cystoplasty, using a portion of intestine for the graft

Vesicostomy: the formation of an opening into the bladder
Cystourethroscopy/cystoscopy. An examination with a narrow, flexible tube-like instrument passed through the urethra to examine the bladder and urinary tract for structural abnormalities or obstructions, such as tumors or stones.

Ureteropyelography: radiography of the ureter and renal pelvis

Meatotomy(porotomy): incision of the urinary meatus in order to enlarge it.

Ureterocele: Saccular dilation of the terminal portion of the ureter at the entrance into the urinary bladder, due to a congenital stricture of the ureteral meatus.

Litholapaxy: the crushing of a stone in the bladder and washing out of the fragments, also called as lithotripsy

Nephrostolithotomy: This procedure uses a needle passed through the skin into the kidney to either remove the stone (lithotomy) or break up the stone (lithotripsy)

Electrocautery: burning of part of a body to remove or close off a part of it

Pyeloscopy: observation of the pelvis and the calices of the kidney following injection of a contrast medium through the ureter.

Urethrotomy: incision of the urethra

Urethrectomy: excision of the urethra

Urethromeatoplasty: Plastic surgery of the urethral canal

Urethrorrhaphy: suture of the urethra

Urethral stricture: narrowing of the urethra

Thermotherapy: treatment of disease by the application of heat

Skene glands: located around the lower end of the urethra and they drain into the urethra . These are homologous to prostate gland in males

Hypospadias: is a birth defect of the urethra in the male that involves an abnormally placed urinary meatus (opening),instead of opening at the tip of the glans of the penis, a hypospadic urethra opens anywhere along the ventral aspect of urethral groove


Prepuce/foreskin: is a retractable double-layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers the glans penis and protects the urinary meatus when the penis is not erect

Condyloma: nfection of the genitals

Papilloma: benign epithelial tumor growing outwards

Molluscum contagiosum: is a viral infection of the skin or mucous membranes.

Circumcision: is removal of some or all of the foreskin (prepuce) from the penis.

Frenulum: connects the foreskin on the underside of glans to the penis

Frenulotomy: excision of frenulum

Priapism is a rare condition that causes a persistent, and often painful, penile erection

Peyronie's disease is a condition characterized by a bent penis due to a thick scar

Carpora cavernosa: a pair of columns of erectile tissue at either side of the penis together with the corpus spongiosum, produce an erection when filled with blood.

Corpora spogiosum is the mass of spongy tissue surrounding the male urethra within the penis.

Corpora cavernosography radiographic examination which demonstrates the corpora cavernosa and draining veins after injection of contrast medium into the corpora.

Cavernosometry: is a technique in which fluid is pumped into the penis at a known rate and pressure. It gives a measurement of the vascular pressure in the corpus cavernosum. during an erection.

Penile plethysmography: measures changes in blood flow in the penis

Nocturnal penile tumescence is the spontaneous occurrence of an erection of the penis during sleep

Urethroplasty is a open surgical procedure for urethral reconstruction to treat urethral stricture.

Preputial adhesions removed foreskin can reattach to the epithelium of glans results in adhesions(scar tissue)

Vasogram an X-ray of the vas deferens

Orchiectomy is the removal of the testicles leaving the penis and the scrotum, the pouch of skin that holds the testicles

Undescended testis or Cryptorchidism is a condition seen in newborns when one or both of the testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac.

Torsion of testis the spermatic cord that provides the blood supply to a testicle is twisted, cutting off the blood supply, causing orchialgia(pain)

Orchiopexy is a surgery to move an undescended testicle into the scrotum and permanently fix it there

Epididymis is a narrow, tightly-coiled tube connecting the efferent ducts from each testicle to its vas deferens

Spermatocele is a retention cyst of a tubule of testis or the head of the epididymis distended with a milky fluid that contains spermatozoa

Epididymovasostomy surgical anastomosis of the epididymis to the vas deferens.

Hydrocele a pathological accumulation of serous fluid in a bodily cavity

Hydrocele testis is the accumulation of fluids around a testicle

Tunica vaginalis is the serous covering of the testis

Scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles and is located between the penis and anus.

Scrotoplasty plastic reconstruction of the scrotum

Vas deferens the excretory duct of the testis which joins the excretory duct of the seminal vesicle (paired sacculated pouches) to form ejaculatory duct

Vasotomy incision of the vas (ductus) deferens

Vasectomy is a surgical procedure performed on males in which the vas deferens (tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the seminal vesicles) are cut, tied, cauterized or otherwise interrupted(family planning method)

Varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the vein in the scrotum draining the testicles

Vasovasostomy the surgical operation of reanastomosing the vas deferens after previous vasectomy, the reversal of vasectomy, undertaken to restore fertility.

Vasiculotomy incision into a vesicle, especially the seminal vesicles

Spermatic cord the structure extending from the abdominal inguinal ring to the testis, comprising nerves, ductus deferens, testicular artery, and other vessels

Vesiculectomy excision of a vesicle, especially the seminal vesicles

Prostatotomy surgical incision of the prostate

Prostatectomy refers to the surgical removal of part of the prostate gland or all of the prostate

Electroejaculation electrical stimulation for the collection of semen for artificial insemination or for examination

Mullerian duct two embryonic tubes that become the uterine tubes, uterus, and part of the vagina in the female and that form the prostatic utricle(part of urethra) in the male


Vulva: external genital organs of female

Bartholin's glands: are two glands located slightly below and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina in women

Perineum: The area between the anus and the scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva in the female

Vulvectomy: a gynecological procedure in which the vulva is partly or completely removed

Hymen: is a fold of mucous membrane which surrounds or partially covers the external vaginal opening.

Hymenectomy: is a minor medical procedure involving the surgical removal or opening of the hymen

Hymen: is a fold of mucous membrane which covers the external vaginal opening

Clitoris: A small erectile body situated at the anterior portion of the vulva

Clitoroplasty: plastic surgery of the clitoris

Pernioplasty: plastic repair of the perineum

Colposcopy: is a procedure that allows a physician to take a closer look at a woman's cervix and vagina using a special instrument called a colposcope.

Colpotomy: incision of the vagina

Colpocentesis: surgical puncture of vagina

Vagina: is a fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female

Vaginectomy: is a medical procedure to remove all or part of the vagina, usually a treatment for vaginal cancer

Colpocleisis: Surgical obliteration of the lumen of the vagina

Colporrhaphy: Repair of a rupture of the vagina by suturing the edges of the tear

Urethrocele: prolapse of the female urethra

Colpopexy: surgical suturing of a displaced vagina back into position against the abdominal wall

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI): is leakage of urine due to insufficient strength of the pelvic floor muscles

Pereyra procedure: surgical treatment of urinary stress incontinence in women

Colpoperineorrhaphy: suture of the ruptured vagina and perineum

Colostomy: refers to a surgical procedure where a portion of the large intestine is connected to anterior abdominal wall to carry stool out of the body

Colposcopy: is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva

Endocervical curettage: The removal of tissue from the inside of the cervix using a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette.

Cryocautery: A substance or an instrument that destroys tissue by freezing

Cervicectomy: Excision of the cervix of the uterus.

Cerclage: encircling of a part with a ring or loop, as for correction of an incompetent cervix uteri

Trachelorrhaphy: suture of the uterine cervix

Biopsy: removal and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue from the living body, performed to establish precise diagnosis.

Dilation and curettage: is called a D&.C, D stands for dilation, which means enlarging. Curettage (the C) means scraping

Uterine fibroids: are the most common, non-cancerous tumors in women of childbearing age.

Myomectomy: is a procedure in which uterine fibroids are surgically removed from the uterus

Hysterectomy: is the surgical removal of the uterus

Urethrocystopexy: Fixation of urethra and bladder for stress incontinence

Intauterine device: is a long acting reversible contraceptive birth control device placed in the uterus

Artificial insemination: is the process by which sperm is placed into the reproductive tract of a female for the purpose of impregnating the female by using means other than sexual intercourse

Vaginal hysterectomy: is a procedure in which the uterus is surgically removed through the vagina

Hysterorrhaphy: Repair of a torn or lacerated uterus by suturing

Hysteroplasty: Plastic surgery of the uterus

Oviduct or Fallopian tubes: are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries into the uterus

Cryoablation: is a process that uses extreme cold (cryo) to remove tissue (ablation)

Sympathectomy: is a surgical procedure that destroys nerves in the sympathetic nervous system to increase blood flow and decrease long-term pain.

Hysteroscopy: is an surgical procedure in which a small telescope is used to inspect the inside of the uterus

Salpingectomy: surgical removal of a Fallopian tube

Fimbrioplasty: plastic surgery of the fimbriae (end) of uterine tube

Salpingostomy: surgical restoration of the patency of a uterine tube.

Oophorectomy (or ovariectomy): is the surgical removal of an ovary or ovaries

Salpingo-oophorectomy: removal of an ovary together with a Fallopian tube

Salpingolysis: A surgical procedure for freeing a fallopian tube from adhesions

Oocyte: immature female reproductive cell prior to fertilization (union of male and female gametes)

Amniocentesis: is a procedure used to diagnose fetal defects in the early second trimester of pregnancy in which a sample of the amniotic fluid( which surrounds a fetus in the womb) is collected through a pregnant woman's abdomen using a needle and syringe.

Cordocentesis: percutaneous puncture of the umbilical vein under ultrasonographic guidance to obtain a fetal blood sample.

Chorionic villi: Microscopic, finger-like projections which surrounds the developing baby.

Postpartum: Referring to the time period of mother following childbirth

Antepartum: period of mother before childbirth

Episiotomy: is a surgical incision made in the area between the vagina and anus (perineum),done during the last stages of labor and delivery to expand the opening of the vagina to prevent tearing during the delivery of the baby

Cephalic: head end of the body

Placenta: organ joining mother and fetus during pregnancy

Caesarean section: is a surgical procedure in which incisions are made through a mother's abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies

Abortion: is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of fetus from uterus

Thyroidectomy: is a operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland.

Parathyroidectomy: is the surgical removal of one or more parathyroid glands.

Thymectomy: is an operation to remove the thymus gland

Adrenalectomy: is the surgical removal of one or both (bilateral adrenalectomy) adrenal glands


Myelography: is an x-ray examination of the structures within spinal column

Cisternography: The radiographic study of the basal cisterns(a closed space serving as a reservoir for fluid)of the brain after the introduction of an opaque contrast medium

Dacrocystography: examination of the lacrimal system (lacrimal gland and ducts) using contrast medium

Cephalogram: an x-ray image of the structures of the head

Orthodentic: is a specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of improper bites, which may be a result of tooth irregularity or disproportionate jaw

Orthopantogram: a radiograph that is taken extraorally and shows a view of the entire dentition, alveolar bone, and other adjacent structures on a single film.

Laryngography: radiography of the larynx.

Sialography: Radiographic examination of the salivary glands and ducts after the introduction of a radiopaque material into the ducts.

Fluoroscopy: An x-ray procedure that produces immediate images and motion on a screen

Decubitus: the position of lying down

Bronchography: radiography of the lungs after instillation of an opaque medium in the bronchi.

Epidurography: Radiographic visualization of the epidural space following the introduction of a radiopaque contrast medium

Vertibroplasty: is a medical spinal repair procedure where bone cement is injected through a small hole in the skin (percutaneously) into a fractured vertebra in order to stabilize it

Discography: is the study and listing of the details concerning sound recordings

Duodenography: radiography of the duodenum

Enema: a solution introduced into the rectum to promote evacuation of feces

Cholecystography: Visualization of the gallbladder by x-rays after the administration of a radiopaque substance

Cholangiography: A radiographic examination of the bile ducts following administration of a radiopaque contrast medium

Pancreatography: radiography of the pancreas

Enterolysis: surgical separation of intestinal adhesions

Urography: radiography of any part of the urinary tract

Pyelostogram or pyelogram: is a radiological procedure used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder

Nephrostogram: A radiograph of the kidney after a contrast agent has been administered through a nephrostomy tube.

Cystography: Radiographic visualization of the bladder following injection of a radiopaque substance

Vasography: Radiography of the vas deferens to determine patency or blood vessels

Vesiculography: The use of special X-ray equipment and a dye to examine the seminal vesicles and related structures

Corpora cavernosography: radiographic examination which demonstrates the corpora cavernosa and draining veins after injection of contrast medium into the corpora.

Urethrocystography: radiographic examination of urethra and bladder after injecting a contrast medium Nephrostomy is an artificial opening created between the kidney and the skin which allows the drainage of urine through catheter(tube)

Pelvimetry: Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis, especially of the adult female pelvis.

Hysterosalpingography: is a radiologic procedure for examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes.

Aortagraphy: Examiation of the aorta using x-rays following the injection of a radiopaque substance

Lymphangiography: is a radiographic procedure for imaging the lymphatic system, Lymph nodes and lymph vessels are visualised after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium.

Shutogram: is a simple method to evaluate the function and patency of ventriculoarterial shunts

Splenoportography: X-ray visualization of the portal circulation that uses radiopaque material introduced into the spleen

Venography: is an x-ray test that provides an image of the leg veins after a contrast dye is injected into a vein in the patient's foot

Portography: X-ray visualization of the portal circulation using radiopaque material introduced into the spleen or into the portal vein.

Uterine fibroids: (also called leiomyomas or myomas) are benign growths of the muscle inside the uterus

Pseudoaneurysm: A dilation of an artery with actual disruption of one or more layers of its walls, rather than with expansion of all wall layers

Atherectomy: is a non-surgical procedure to open blocked coronary arteries or vein grafts by using a device on the end of a catheter to cut away atherosclerotic plaque (a deposit of fat that accumulate in the lining of the artery wall).

Xeroradiography: a diagnostic x-ray technique in which images are produced electrically rather than chemically, permitting lower exposure times and radiation energies than those of ordinary x-rays

Cineradiography: the making of a motion picture record of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.

Polytomography: tomography (3D images from micro to nanometer)of tissue at several predetermined planes
Echoencephalography The use of reflected ultrasound to create a detailed visual image of the brain

Gestation: The period from conception to birth, during which the developing fetus is carried in the uterus

Sonohysterography: is a simple ultrasound (US) procedure that may be used to evaluate the endometrium.

Mammography: is a specific type of imaging that uses a low-dose x-ray system to examine breasts

Mammogram: x-ray of the breast

Galactogram: is a special type of mammogram which is done after the x-ray dye has been injected into a breast duct through the nipple

Dosimetry: is the calculation of the absorbed dose in matter and tissue resulting from the exposure to indirectly and directly ionizing radiation

Hyperthermia: is an elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation, occurs when the body produces or absorbs more heat than it can dissipate

Photpdensitometry: The measurement of optical density by means of a photocell that measures the loss of light transmitted through a material

Ventriculograhy: Radiography of the ventricles of the brain by injection of either a contrast medium or radiopaque agent

Angioplasty: is a term describing a procedure used to widen vessels narrowed by stenoses or occlusions

Absorptiometry: A diagnostic technique for measuring bone mineral density in which an image of bone is produced from computerized analysis of absorption rates of photons directed in a focused beam at a body part

Loopogram: A radiocontrast study in which a catheter is introduced into an ileal conduit to evaluate the presence of residual/recurrent transitional cell CA

Nephrotomogram: A sectional radiograph of the kidneys following intravenous administration of contrast material to improve visualization of the renal parenchyma

Sequestration: formation of sequestrum(a piece of dead bone separated from the sound bone in necrosis)


Immunoglobulin: any of a group of large glycoproteins that are secreted by plasma cells and that function as antibodies in the immune response by binding with specific antigens

Antigen: a substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody Immunization is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified(increased) against an agent (known as the immunogen)

Psychotherapy: treatment of emotional, behavioral, personality, and psychiatric disorders based primarily upon verbal or nonverbal communication with the patient, in contrast to treatments utilizing chemical and physical measures.

Psycoanalysis: a method of investigation of the mind,a systematized set of theories about human behaviour and a method of treatment of psychological or emotional illness

Nacrosynthesis: is the use of various narcotics to induce various types of hypnotic (sleepy) states

Hypnotherapy: is therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis

Hemodialysis: is a method for removing waste products such as potassium, urea, as well as free water from the blood when the kidneys are in renal failure.

Peritoneal dialysis: is a form of renal replacement therapy, it removes wastes and fluids from the blood by using the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneal membrane or peritoneum) as a filter

Hemoperfusion: is a medical process used to remove toxic substances from a patients blood.

Intubation: refers to the placement of a tube into an external or internal orifice of the body.

Electrogastrography: The recording of the electrical phenomena associated with gastric secretion and motility

Anorectal manometry: for the diagnosis of faecal incontinence and constipation Gonioscopy is an eye examination to look at the front part of eye (anterior chamber) between the cornea and the iris.

Corneal topography: is a non-invasive medical imaging technique for mapping the surface curvature of the cornea, the outer structure of the eye

Serial tonometry: describes multiple determinations of intraocular pressure over a few hours on one day.

Glaucoma: the loss of vision normally occurs gradually over a long period of time due to diseases affecting the optic nerve
Ophthalmoscopy is a test to see inside the fundus of the eye and other structures using an Opthalmoscope

Opthalmoscope: an instrument containing a perforated mirror and lenses used to examine the interior of the eye.

Angioscopy: Visualization of the passage of intravenously injected substances, such as radiopaque agents, through the capillaries Angiography is the x-ray study of the blood vessels Angiogram uses a radiopaque substance, or dye, to make the blood vessels visible under x ray Arteriography is a type of angiography that involves the study of the arteries Ophthalmodynamometry is a technique for measuring the blood pressure in the small blood vessels of the retina of the eye

Oculography: A method of recording eye position and eye movements

Electro-oculography: EOG. A type of electrophysiologic retinal testing done to measure the difference in the electrical potential between the front and back of the eye in response to dark and light. Electroretinography: measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors , inner retinal cells

Anomaloscope: is an instrument used to test for color blindness

Contact lens: is a corrective, cosmetic, or therapeutic lens usually placed on the cornea of the eye Otolaryngology or ENT (ear, nose and throat): is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat.

Nasopharyngoscopy: visual examination of the pharynx via a fiberscope passed up the nostril.

Aphakia: absence of the lens of an eye, occurring congenitally or as a result of trauma

Nystagmus: Rhythmic, oscillating motions of the eyes which are involuntary

Audiometry: is the testing of a person's ability to hear various sound frequencies

Tympanometry: indirect measurement of the compliance (mobility) and impedance of the tympanic membrane and ossicles of the middle ear

Electrocochleography: A measurement of the electrical potentials generated by sound simulation in the inner ear

Tinnitus: is hearing ringing, buzzing, or other sounds without an external cause

Otolaryngology: The branch of medicine that deals with diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the ear, larynx, and upper respiratory tract.

Valvuloplasty: plastic repair of a valve, especially a heart valve.

Spirometry: is the most common of the Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs), measuring lung function, specifically the measurement of the amount and speed of air that can be inhaled and exhaled

Bronchospasm: is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles

Oximetry: is a non-invasive method allowing the monitoring of the oxygenation of a patient's hemoglobin

Chiropactic tratement: health care discipline and profession that emphasizes diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine,

Osteopathic manipulative tratement: an approach to manual therapy, a form of therapy that uses physical contact(massage), used to improve the impaired or altered function of the musculo-skeletal system

Acupuncture: the procedure of inserting and manipulating fine needles into specific points on the body to relieve pain or for therapeutic purposes

Orthotic management: managing the diseases of upper and lower limbs

Electromyography: a technique for evaluating and recording the activation signal of muscles.

Iontophoresis: non-invasive method of medication or bioactive agents, transdermally by repulsive electromotive force using a small electrical charge applied to an iontophoretic chamber containing a similarly charged active agent and its vehicle, is commonly used by physical therapists for the application of anti-inflammatory medications.

Hubbard tank: A large, specially designed tank in which a patient may be immersed for various therapeutic underwater exercises.

Vasopneumatic devices: specialized equipment for the application of pressure to the limbs inorder to relieve swelling after an acute injury

Paraffin bath: heat treatment done to the small joints of the body inorder to get relief from the pain

Diathermy: means "electrically induced heat" and is commonly used for muscle relaxation. It is also a method of heating tissue electromagnetically or ultrasonically for therapeutic purposes in medicine.

Photochemotherapy: treatment by means of drugs (e.g. methoxsalen) that react to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight.

Dysplastic nevi: a mole whose appearance is different from that of common moles. Dysplastic nevi are generally larger than ordinary moles and have irregular and indistinct borders.

Actinotherapy: The therapeutic use of ultraviolet light.

Photodynamic therapy: is a third-leve,treatment for cancer involving three key components: a photosensitizer, light, and tissue oxygen.

Chemotherapy: systemic treatment, to get rid of any cancer cells that may have spread from where the cancer started to another part of the body, which travel through blood route

Hydration: supplying the tissues with essential water

Cognition: the scientific term for "the process of thought".

Cannalith: which are small crystals of calcium carbonate ,that are normally attached to the otolithic membrane in the utricle of the inner ear

Polysomnography: also known as a sleep study, is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine.


non-invasive method of monitoring human rest/activity cycles.

Allergy immunotherapy: form of immunotherapy for allergic disorders in which the patient is vaccinated with increasingly larger doses of an allergen (substances to which they are allergic) with the aim of inducing immunologic tolerance